Set oven to 375º.
Cut off feet at knee joint as well as head, if applicable. Trim and discard any extra fat from around cavity entrance and neck. Rinse and pat chicken dry.
Season well inside and out with salt and pepper, and stuff cavity with half a lemon and whole sprigs of herbs such as sage, thyme, and/or rosemary.
Truss the bird’s feet together with butcher twine.
Heat a heavy, oven-safe roasting pan and add 2 tablespoons olive or peanut oil. Brown the chicken on medium heat on all sides. Turn breast-side up, and place pan in oven; Roast for 20 minutes. Add 2 tablespoons butter to pan and baste regularly over the next 30 minutes or so, until the meat measures 165º at the thigh. Remove from oven. Let rest for 10 minutes or so. Remove citrus and seasoning from cavity. Carve and serve. Use carcass for stock along with feet and head.